Pesticidal efficacy of Gmelina arborea Roxb Powders and Ethanol extracts on Bean Bruchids, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Adeleke Ezekiel abayomi, James Thomas, Oladejo Ola Afolabi, Hassan Arin Azonchi

Abstract


Cowpea has become an easy source of protein worldwide and especially in Africa, yet most of the yields are lost as a result of infestation by pest especially Callosobruchus maculatus. The pesticidal efficacy of Gmelina arborea was tested on C. maculatus. The experiment was conducted using a Complete Randomized Block Design. G. arborea leaf powder showed a mean mortality of 4.25±1.35, 2.75±1.29 and 1.92±1.38 when 10g 5g and 2.50g of the powder was applied and a percentage mortality of 85%, 55% and 38.33% respectively. Stem bark powder showed a mean mortality of 1.33±1.16, 2.08±1.31 and 2.92±1.38 when 2.50g, 5.00g and 10.00g was applied and a percentage mortality of 26.67%, 41.67% and 58.33% respectively. The leaf ethanol extract showed a mean mortality of 4.67±2.27, 3.67±1.72 and 2.83±2.17 at 500mg, 250mg and 125mg concentrations and a mortality percentage of 93.33%, 73.33% and 56.67% respectively while the G. arborea stem bark ethanol extract revealed a mean mortality of 2.75±1.29, 3.58±1.83 and 4.17±1.95 at 125mg, 258mg and 500mg concentrations with percentage mortality of 55%, 71.67% and 83% respectively. The pesticidal efficacy between the leaf and stem bark ethanol extracts showed that p ≥ 0.05 for all concentrations used and between the powders, p ≥ 0.05 at 5.00g and p ≤ 0.05 at 2.50g and 10.00g. In view of these findings both G. arborea leaf and stem bark extracts and powders can be used to effectively control infestation of cowpea by C. maculatus.


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