Impacts of Climate Change on Coast Line of Arabian Sea: A Case Study of Indus River Delta, Pakistan

N. H. CHANDIO, M. M. ANWAR, Q. H. MALLAH

Abstract


Indus delta is facing lot of troubles since last twenty years due to climate change and sea level rise of Arabia Sea. The sea water intrusion is continually moving towards the coastal belt of Sindh Province. It is observed that sea water intrusion is moving sub-surface also. Fertile soil of the area is converting infertile land. Agriculture, fruits, vegetables, flora and fauna and ecosystem of the Delta is disturbed. Mangroves forest is slowly washed away from the area. It is reported that rate of Sea water intrusion is 80 acres per day and 38 percent mangroves forest has been removed in last twenty years. Increased stormy circumstances at the coast line of the Arabian Sea have given rise to the increased tidal activity. Along the coast line, increased to- and fro motion of tides and waves continue encroaching the shoreline posing threats to agricultural land, infrastructure and development activities. In summer, generally southwesterly winds prevail along the coastal areas of Sindh which bring monsoon rains to the area. Dynamics of south westerly has increased significantly producing enhanced precipitation over southeastern parts of the Sindh province. As that wind act the coast from south therefore their increased force has been rapidly eroding the soil/land along the coast due to the tides and strong waves. Continuity of storm acts with sea surface depressions cause significant damage. The latest research shows that fresh water availability in the River Indus, Tidal Link canal and mangroves forest may push backward the sea water intrusion and will help for the restoration of the Indus delta and its economy.


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