Muhammad Sadiq Malkani


From first ever to until now about 30 localities of dinosaurs and crocodiles are discovered from Mesozoic of Pakistan. Among these one locality (Baroch Nala of Malakhel area) from middle Jurassic of Kohat and Potwar Basin, 25 localites (PDL-1 to PDL-25 from Vitakri region include Vitakri, Gambrak and Mari Bohri areas, Rakhni region include Mat Khetran and Karcha-Jhabbar areas, Baeker region include Bhal area, and Fort Munro region include Top Girdu and Mian Ghundi Khar areas) from the latest Cretaceous of Sulaiman Basin and 4 localities like Sun Chaku and Charow from Late Jurassic, and Karkh and Khuzdar from Late Cretaceous of Kirthar basin are known so far. Balochisaurus (Balochisauridae, Titanosauria, Sauropoda) remains have been found from the latest Cretaceous Vitakri Formation (previously upper member of Pab Formation) in Mari Bohri, Kinwa Kali Kakor, Basti Nala (Zubra) Gambrak, Bor Kali Kakor, Grut Gambrak and some other localities of Sulaiman basin, Pakistan. These fossils provide new insights in to skull and postcranial morphology. Multipurpose tail special with trispinous distalmost caudal centrum of Balochisaurus (along with some other genera) from Pakistan provides a new look of titanosaurs. The skull discoveries of Balochisaurus (Marisaurus and Pakisaurus)  from  Pakistan  add  the  skull  diversity  of titanosaurs. Due to dearth  of  cranial  data  and l ack of common associated elements in titanosaurs has left even the most basic skeletal morphology of the clade controversial and has precluded detailed study of its higher and lower level phylogeny, but now Pakistan has this advantage which produced associated cranial, axial and appendicular elements of Balochisaurus (Marisaurus and Pakisaurus). Large bodied Vitakridrinda (Theropoda) remains have been found from Alam, Bor, Sangiali, Shalghara, Kinwa, Top Kinwa, Mari Bohri etc. localities of Sulaiman basin and Karkh area of Kirthar Basin. New remains from many sites and an articulated elements of pes, along with the confrontation scenario between two Vitakridrinda deduced from its holotypic rostrum are also being described here.

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