Fossilization in the Learning of the Present Simple Tense

Muhammad Athar Khurshid, Ghulam Ali Buriro, Asad Habib, Aftab Ahmed Charan


This paper presents cognitive problems of the Urdu-medium learners in their usage of the present simple tense. The term used to label the distorted concepts is fossil. This study was based on Corder's framework of error analysis. The participants were 25 grade-XIII students of an Urdu-medium college. A test of Urdu sentences was administered, and later unstructured interviews were conducted to know the learners' reasons for their faulty usage. Contrastive analysis of the sentences in the test was also performed. The findings of the study were: one-to-one correlations of NL1 and TL2 items, fixation of a specific linear order, confused time scale, and overlooking of intervening items.

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